Educationalists Dewey (1916) and Benjamin (1939) inspired science educators to develop students' capacities to function as responsible, savvy participants in a world increasingly affected by science and technology (Aikenhead, 2005). This current thought originally led to teaching the history and philosophy of science in schools (Fensham, 1992; Matthews, 1994). However, when science educators embraced social responsibility, engendered by environmentalism and by the emergent sociology of science, humanistic science became identified with a movement called, "science-technology-society," STS (Ziman, 1980).
|Calvin & Hobbes|
Conceptual Framework for STS
A conceptual framework for STS was achieved through the integration of two broad academic fields:
- The interactions of science and scientists with social issues and institutions external to the scientific community, and
- The social interactions of scientists and their communal, epistemic, and ontological values internal to the scientific community
A humanistic perspective incorporates both of the above fields.